Initially trained and board certified in internal medicine, Dr Raffaele has been exclusively practicing in longevity medicine in New York City for 25 years with a focus on personalized hormone optimization and physiological age assessment. In 2007, he co-founded PhysioAge LLC, a web-based health analytics data collection and reporting system used by health care practices around the world to monitor and assess the effectiveness of their treatments. Since 2009, he has been involved in clinical telomere biology research and published 4 studies of the effect of oral telomerase activation on the immune system, metabolism, and telomere length in aging adults. He has lectured nationally and internationally on the clinical application of telomere biology. He routinely posts about telomere biology, geroscience research, hormone optimization, and biomarkers of aging. He received his B.A. in philosophy from Princeton University and his MD from Drexel University Medical School in 1989.